Low-Oxalate

Oxalates are naturally occurring compounds found in all plant foods. Specific species of bacteria, such as Oxalobacter formigenes, in our guts break down this compound to reduce the amount that is absorbed into our bloodstream from our food. Unfortunately, due to overuse of antibiotics and chemicals like glyphosate in non-organic foods, this species of bacteria can disappear from our gut microbiomes. Additionally, certain individuals are more susceptible to the effects of oxalates in their food. Oxalate exists in two forms, soluble and insoluble. Consuming calcium-rich foods (from dairy products or supplements) along with higher oxalate foods will cause a percentage of these oxalates to form calcium-oxalate crystals, which then get excreted through the bowels and never get absorbed. Usually foods contain a mix of soluble and insoluble oxalates. Soluble oxalates, once absorbed, can bind with minerals in the body and form kidney stones (calcium-oxalate stones).

What is a Low-Oxalate Diet?

A low oxalate diet is generally defined as containing less than 50mg of dietary oxalates per day, though a diet of less than 100mg per day may be adequate for some individuals. Keep in mind that oxalate content can vary in the same food depending upon the soil in which the food was grown, the climate, the part of the plant being analyzed, and the ripeness of the fruit or vegetable. Oxalates are also formed in your body from endogenous synthesis, the metabolism of Vitamin C, and the metabolism of glycine (an amino acid). About half of the urinary excretion of oxalates is from what is consumed in food and the other half is from a byproduct of cellular metabolic processes.

  • Low-Oxalate Foods: Containing 0-2mg of oxalates per serving.
  • Moderate Oxalate Foods: Containing 3-9mg of oxalates per serving.
  • High Oxalate Foods: Containing 10-49mg of oxalates per serving.
  • Very-High Oxalate Foods: Containing over 50mg of oxalates per serving.

Remember that portion sizes matter! 1 to 2 raspberries per day may not be an issue, but an entire cup may put you close to your daily allotment for oxalates. If you choose to consume a higher oxalate meal, make sure your other meals or snacks contain little to no oxalates, or choose calcium-rich foods or supplements to consume along with your higher oxalate foods.

If you are experiencing the following conditions or symptoms, then a Low-Oxalate Diet may be right for you:

  • Kidney stones (due to calcium oxalate stone formation)
  • Crohn's Disease (can cause increased absorption of oxalates due to fat malabsorption and calcium saponification with fats in the gut)
  • Chronic joint pain
  • Chronic pain throughout the body

What can I eat on a Low-Oxalate Diet?

The majority of your meals and snacks should revolve around low-oxalate foods. All foods from the Very High Oxalate list should be strictly avoided. Very small amounts of foods from the High Oxalate List may be able to be consumed on occasion, depending on your personal tolerance. Use this list of foods to create low-oxalate meals and snacks from. Dairy foods are particularly beneficial to eat with medium oxalate foods, as the high calcium in dairy will help bind to some of the oxalates in the gut and help them get excreted without getting absorbed. High blood sugar, whether from increased consumption of sugar and refined carbohydrates or from blood sugar dysfunction, can also cause an increased loss of calcium, which increased the risk for stone formation. The focus should be on eating a balanced diet of whole plant and animal foods from the low and medium oxalate list. All of the recipes tagged low-oxalate on this site contain ingredients from this list. 

  • Fruits: Apples and applesauce, bananas, blackberries, blueberries, cherries, cranberries, melons (cantaloupe, honeydew, watermelon), seedless grapes (red and green), strawberries, peaches, pears, plantains, plums.
  • Vegetables: Asparagus, bok choy, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, cucumbers, iceberg and romaine lettuce, lacinato kale, radishes, mushrooms, mustard greens, onions, summer squash (zucchini and yellow), red bell peppers, winter squash, pickles, and sauerkraut.
  • Meat, Poultry, Fish & Eggs: Beef, pork, chicken, turkey, fish & seafood, and eggs. 
  • Dairy: Products made with cow’s and goat’s milk, including buttermilk, skim milk, 1% and 2% milk, whole milk, whipping cream, half & half, sour cream, plain yogurt, all cheeses, and butter.
  • Grains: Wild rice, white rice, masa harina (nixtamalized corn), and barley. Potato starch is also ok. Boiled rice noodles are also ok on occasion as a majority of the oxalates get leached into the cooking water, which is then discarded. 
  • Legumes & Seeds: Black-eyed peas, fresh or frozen green peas, yellow & green split peas, chickpeas, lima beans, flax seeds, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds.
  • Herbs and Spices: Basil, rosemary, oregano, chives, cilantro, nutmeg, white pepper, saffron, tarragon, vanilla, sea salt. Small amounts of cinnamon, cardamom, and ginger. Parsley only in small amounts. (Turmeric is high in soluble oxalates)!
  • Condiments: Mustard, mayonnaise, vinegar.
  • Coconut Products: Coconut milk, coconut butter, shredded coconut, coconut oil.
  • Fats and Oils: Olive oil, canola oil, safflower oil, coconut oil, butter.
  • Sweeteners: Cane sugar, maple syrup, honey.
  • Beverages: Water, chamomile tea, ginger ale, apple juice, apple cider.

Foods to Avoid

Very High-Oxalate Foods (50+ mg):

  • 1 cup beet juice (175mg)
  • ½ cup beets (76mg)
  • ½ cup okra (57mg)
  • 1 medium baked potato with skin (97mg)
  • 4 ounces homemade potato french fries (51mg)
  • ½ cup rhubarb (541mg)
  • ½ cup cooked spinach (755mg)
  • 1 cup raw spinach (656mg)
  • 1 oz almonds (122mg)
  • ½ cup navy beans (76mg)
  • 1 cup soybeans (96mg)
  • 1 cup amaranth flour (294mg)
  • 1 cup brown rice flour (65mg)
  • 1 cup rice bran (281mg)
  • 1 cup buckwheat flour (336mg)
  • 1 cup cornmeal (64mg)
  • 1 cup potato flour (177mg)
  • 1 cup quinoa flour (174mg)
  • 1 cup soy flour (94mg)
  • 1 cup brown teff flour (302mg)
  • 1 cup ivory teff flour (262mg)
  • 1 cup cooked amaranth (292mg)
  • 1 cup cooked buckwheat groats (133mg)
  • 1 cup cooked bulgur wheat (86mg)
  • 1 cup corn grits (97mg)
  • 1 cup cooked millet (92mg)
  • 1 cup cooked quinoa (110mg)
  • 1 cup cooked teff grain (126mg)
  • 1 cup cooked wheat berries (98mg)
  • 4 tsp cocoa powder (67mg)

  • 1 cup homemade hot chocolate (65mg)

High-Oxalate Foods (10-49 mg):

  • 1 cup tomato juice (10mg)
  • 1 cup carrot juice (12mg)
  • 1 date (24mg)
  • ½ grapefruit (24mg)
  • 1 orange (29mg)
  • 1 cup raspberries (48mg)
  • 1 tangerine (10mg)
  • 5 dried figs (24mg)
  • ½ cup dried pineapple (30mg)
  • ¼ cup prunes (11mg)
  • ½ cup canned pineapple (24mg)
  • 1 avocado (19mg)
  • 1 cup bamboo shoots (35mg)
  • 1 large raw carrot (30mg)
  • 1 cup cooked celery (10mg)
  • 1 cup raw celery (38mg)
  • 1 cup collards (10mg)
  • 10 olives (18mg)
  • ½ cup parsnip (15mg)
  • 1 cup mashed potatoes (29mg)
  • 1 cup sweet potatoes (28mg)
  • 2 ounces potato chips (42mg)
  • ½ cup mashed rutabaga (31mg)
  • ½ cup tomato sauce (30mg)
  • ½ cup mashed turnip (30mg)
  • ½ cup cubed yams (40mg)
  • 1 cup pumpkin seed flour (11mg)
  • 1 oz cashews (49mg)
  • 1 oz peanuts (27mg)
  • 1 oz pecans (10mg)
  • 1 oz pistachios (14mg)
  • ½ cup walnuts (15mg)
  • 1 tablespoon peanut butter (13mg)
  • 1 tablespoon tahini (14mg)
  • ½ cup fava beans (20mg)
  • ½ cup red kidney beans (15mg)
  • ½ cup refried beans (16mg)
  • 3.5 ounces tofu (13mg)
  • 1 cup garbanzo bean flour (17mg)
  • ½ cup GarFava flour (15mg)
  • 1 cup soy milk (20mg)

Foods you can eat on a Low-Oxalate Diet

Medium-Oxalate Foods (3-9 mg):

  • 1 cup red grape juice (6mg)
  • 1 cup 100% cranberry juice (5mg)
  • 1 banana (3mg)
  • 1 cup blackberries (4mg)
  • 1 cup blueberries (4mg)
  • 1 cup cherries (3mg)
  • 1 fresh fig (9mg)
  • ½ lemon (3mg)
  • ½ lime (3mg)
  • 1 cup pineapple (4mg)
  • 1 cup strawberries (4mg)
  • 1 ounce raisins (3mg)
  • ½ cup canned cherries (7mg)
  • 1 small artichoke (5mg)
  • 4 spears asparagus (6mg)
  • ½ cup chopped broccoli (6mg)
  • ½ cup cooked sliced carrots (7mg)
  • ½ cup green beans (9mg)
  • ½ cup green bell pepper (5mg)
  • ½ cup hot chili peppers (5mg)
  • ½ cup frozen mixed vegetables (5mg)
  • 1 cup chopped mustard greens (4mg)
  • 1 medium tomato (7mg)
  • 1 cup sea vegetables (3mg)
  • ½ cup yellow squash (4mg)
  • ½ cup sunflower seeds (6mg)
  • ½ cup pumpkin seeds (8mg)
  • 1 tablespoon hummus (4mg)
  • ½ cup mung beans (8mg)
  • 1 cup corn flour (3mg)
  • ½ cup potato starch (3mg)
  • ½ cup coconut flour (4mg)
  • 1 cup cooked white rice (4mg)
  • ½ cup canned white hominy (6mg)
  • ½ cup cooked Ancient Harvest quinoa elbow noodles (9mg)
  • ½ cup cooked Tinkyada elbow brown rice noodles (5mg)
  • 1 cup cooked popcorn (5mg)
  • 1 English muffin (8mg)
  • 1 plain bagel (9mg)
  • 1 slice white bread (5mg)
  • 1 slice whole oat bread (5mg)
  • 1 slice whole wheat bread (6mg)
  • 1 slice rye bread (7mg)
  • 1 slice Udi’s Gluten-Free White bread (7mg)
  • 1 corn tortilla (7mg)
  • 1 flour tortilla (3mg)
  • 1 piece corn bread (4mg)
  • 1 rice cake (4mg)
  • 1 cup tuna salad (6mg)
  • 1 cup chocolate milk (7mg)
  • 1 envelope powdered milk (3mg)
  • 1 tablespoon soy sauce (3mg)

  • 1 tablespoon chili powder (7mg)

  • 1 tablespoon nutritional yeast (7mg)

  • 1 cup prune juice (7mg)

Low-Oxalate Foods (0-2 mg):

  • 1 cup orange juice (1mg)
  • 1 cup grapefruit juice (1mg)
  • 1 apple (1mg)
  • 1 cup applesauce (2mg)
  • 1 apricot (1mg)
  • ¼ cantaloupe melon (1mg)
  • 1 cup honeydew melon (1mg)
  • 1 mango (1mg)
  • 1 nectarine (0mg)
  • 1 papaya (1mg)
  • 1 peach (0mg)
  • 1 plantain (1mg)
  • 1 plum (0mg)
  • 16 seedless grapes (1mg)
  • 1 slice watermelon (1mg)
  • 1 cup dried apples (2mg)
  • 1 cup dried apricots (3mg)
  • ½ cup dried cranberries (1mg)
  • ½ cup cranberry sauce (2mg)
  • ½ cup canned peaches (1mg)
  • ½ cup canned pears (1mg)
  • ½ cup alfalfa sprouts (0mg)
  • 1 cup chopped raw kale (2mg)
  • ½ cup Brussels sprouts (2mg)
  • 1 cup raw bok choy (1mg)
  • ½ cup green or red cabbage (1mg)
  • ½ cup cooked cauliflower (1mg)
  • ½ cup corn kernels (1mg)
  • ¼ cucumber (1mg)
  • ½ cup endive (0mg)
  • 1 cup iceberg lettuce (0mg)
  • 1 cup romaine lettuce (0mg)
  • 1 mushroom (0mg)
  • 1 small onion (0mg)
  • ½ cup frozen peas (1mg)
  • 1 pickle (0mg)
  • 10 radishes (0mg)
  • ½ cup scallions (1mg)
  • ½ cup sauerkraut (1mg)
  • 4 waterchesnuts (0mg)
  • ½ cup zucchini (1mg)
  • 1 tablespoon flaxseeds (0mg)
  • 1/3 cup oat bran (0mg)
  • 1 cup corn bran (0mg)
  • 1 cup barley malt flour (0mg)
  • 1 cup cooked cellophane noodles (1mg)
  • 1 medium egg (0mg)
  • 3 oz antelope (0mg)
  • 2 slices bacon (0mg)
  • 3 oz buffalo (0mg)
  • 3 oz chicken (0mg)
  • 1 chicken hot dog (1mg)
  • 3 oz chicken liver (0mg)
  • 1 hot dog (1mg)
  • 3 oz ham (0mg)
  • 3 oz ground beef (0mg)
  • 3 oz (90% lean) ground beef (1mg)
  • 3.5 oz beef liver (0mg)
  • 3 oz moose (0mg)
  • 5 oz pork (0mg)
  • 5 oz turkey (0mg)
  • 3 oz venison (0mg)
  • 3 oz Alaskan king crab (0mg)
  • 1 fillet bluefish (1mg)
  • 3 oz clams (0mg)
  • 3 oz cod (0mg)
  • 1 tsp cod liver oil (0mg)
  • 3 oz flounder (0mg)
  • 3 oz haddock (0mg)
  • 3 oz halibut (0mg)
  • 3 oz herring (1mg)
  • 3 oz mackerel (0mg)
  • 3 oz oysters (0mg)
  • 3 oz pollock (0mg)
  • 4 oz salmon (0mg)
  • 1 can sardines (0mg)
  • 3 oz shrimp
  • 1 piece swordfish (0mg)
  • 3.5 oz canned tuna (0mg)
  • 3 oz whiting (0mg)
  • 1 tablespoon butter (0mg)
  • 1 oz cream cheese (0mg)
  • 1 oz fat-free cream cheese (1mg)
  • 1 oz low-fat cream cheese (1 mg)
  • 1 cup fat-free milk (1mg)
  • 1 cup 1% milk (1mg)
  • 1 cup 2% milk (1mg)
  • 1 cup whole milk (1mg)
  • 1 cup buttermilk (1mg)
  • 1 tablespoon sour cream (0mg)
  • ½ cup vanilla ice cream (0mg)
  • ½ cup frozen yogurt (1mg)
  • 1 cup plain yogurt (2mg)
  • 8 oz non-fat yogurt with fruit (1mg)
  • 1 slice cheddar cheese (0mg)
  • 1 slice low-fat cheese (0mg)
  • 1 oz mozzarella cheese (0mg)
  • ½ cup cottage cheese (0mg)
  • 1 tablespoon apple butter (0mg)
  • 1 tablespoon honey (0mg)
  • 1 tablespoon molasses (0mg)
  • 1 tablespoon ketchup (1mg)
  • 1 tablespoon horseradish (0mg)
  • 1 tablespoon fruit jam (1mg)
  • 1 tablespoon mayonnaise (0mg)
  • 1 teaspoon yellow mustard (1mg)
  • 1 tablespoon salsa (1mg)
  • 2 tablespoon whipped cream (0mg)
  • 1 dash black pepper (0mg)
  • 1 teaspoon garlic powder (0mg)
  • 1 cup packed brown sugar (1mg)
  • 1 tablespoon gelatin (0mg)
  • 1 teaspoon lard (0mg)
  • 1 teaspoon shortening (0mg)
  • 1 teaspoon sugar (0mg)
  • 1 tablespoon dried whey (0mg)
  • 1 cup brewed coffee (1mg)

How do I start on a Low-Oxalate Diet?

  1. If you are not yet a member on this site, you can join now.
  2. Add some of our sample low-oxalate meal plans to your user profile or create your own!
  3. All of the recipes tagged low-oxalate on this site contain ingredients from the low and medium oxalate food lists. This will keep your daily oxalate consumption on the low end. Keep in mind that high doses of vitamin C supplements can increase endogenous oxalate formation! Consume no more than 500mg of Vitamin C supplements per day. 
  4. Remember to keep sugar and sweet foods on the low end. High dietary sugar (and high blood sugar) can increase urinary calcium loss, and this increases the risk for stone formation. 
  5. Schedule your meal plans to your meal planning calendar and create grocery shopping lists.
  6. Get inspired with new low-oxalate recipes added to this site weekly! Join our Nourishing Meals Community Facebook Group to get notified with new recipes and more! Everyone is welcome.